Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Unexplained Hunger

I have this ongoing hunger sensation, which is stronger than real hunger. The urge to eat, when logically, I should not need to eat.

This has been a problem all my life. I was grossly obese as a child. I have been on a diet, loosing weight, or gaining weight all my life. Each yo-yo has been greater than the last. this is the seventh or eight loss cycle, each of the previous were shy of 100 pounds, this one has been 55+ kgs.

I have a long list of things that this hunger it is not, including hyperinsulinemia, thyroid, carbohydrate addiction, omega 6 addiction, emotional eating, wheat addiction, gluten issues, drugs, and the usually suspects. All your references are familiar in my search as to the cause, but there must be something else that is driving the hunger.

It has been tough going through life with something like mild Prader-Wille. I try to follow a Paleo diet now, with little fruit, and a wide group of vitamins and minerals, but I usually spend two three hour periods hungry. I have been searching for something to relieve the hunger before I get tired of it all and go back into a eating cycle again.

I would appreciate any other ideas as to what may be going on. The best medical advise I have got is learn to live with it. and a long list of thing it is not.

I also have other issues, leaky memory, low impulse control, and low human contact need, but everybody has something.

Monday, May 30, 2011

Blood Glucose

In order to loose weight, we must have low or normal BG, not high. It will be more difficult to achieve on a carb rich diet.

Social Delusion

Being hunger free for life is a social delusion, not real. It is my expatiation that I will be hungry the remainder of my life, if I am to maintain this weight loss.

To day Yoni of Weight Matters discusses a paper that indicated that change in lifestyle, work, is the cause of obesity (more non physical work). Work, exercise raises BG through glucogenesis (from glycogen) and gluconegenesis (from protein). Keytones from fat are also produced, for muscle food. Hunger is sometime related to BG, and light exercise reduces hunger for a while, until glycogen storage is reduced. Duh. Backwards.

Now it is a mater of adjusting the human organism to its new environment. We can obtain some relief by returning to old food sources, modern paleo, archevore, primal diet. Once I consider myself as a symbonient mind-body, it is easier to see that hunger is just a body feeling and can be ignored or manipulated. freedom from hunger is just a social delusion pushed by others.

There is a great flow chart at http://www.carbohydratescankill.com/2093/alcohol-hypertriglyceridemia-beyond , but without division at the multiparty split points. Add Lustig, and fructose goes mainly to fats as storage, and fruit and alcohol look similar.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Separation of self into two components

In Carnege, it is appeal to the Noble motives. In OA, it is a concept of god. In Bernstein it is separation of mind and body, the mind doing service for the body, the body doing service for the mind, that allows for more strength to do what we could not do previously. The idea of the mind doing for the body, desiring and instructing only the necessary foods, while the body supports the mind. The idea of a two identity, symbiotic relationship, as Dax in DS9, is not something that ever occurred to me before. A bit of a twist. Each identity doing for the other out of respect and protection, avoiding poisons, raises eating decisions to a noble plane.

To look at it another was, I have an old sick dog, that a little food keeps alive. I am not concerned about the dogs wants.  I need something like 2 eggs for breakfast, a can of fish for lunch, and perhaps 112 gm of meat for dinner. Add 2 cups of stems, shoots, or leaves and a bit of dressing, or a 150 ml of roots and you have a Bernstein day, more or less. If I can feed the dog, why can I not feed myself just that prescription and ignor the hunger?

Notes from About

LoBAG - Low BioAvailable Glucose diet removes all carb dense foods from the diet, If it were paleo or archivor then that would describe it better. Limit the protein to about 1 gm to each kg of lean body mass, set the carbs (eat mainly stocks, shoots, and leaves) at about 50/4- B12, s6, L12, S6, D12, Total 50 as R Bernstein, 65 gm P, 12, 6, 20   ,6, 20 Total Calories about 800+200+ fats. The 800 includes 500C of fats.

R Bernstein, Diabetes Solution, Pg 49, ~~ insulin resistant ~ therefore ~ high insulin stores BG as fat and glycogen, BG continues to rise, insulin continues to rise, cell unable to get glucose ~ therefore hunger remains.

Yes, yes. Today my BG was 6.6, and I was hungry like bear.

Iron shortage can cause craving.

A video likely to become a Low carb cult classic http://weightmaven.org/2011/06/10/why-bbs/

Fat summary at http://www.marksdailyapple.com/saturated-fat-healthy/

Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Bariatric Surgery

Today Dr. Sharma had a post supporting bariatric surgery. No doubt it is great for those who can follow the food program after. But there is the rub.

I know a couple of girls who had the surgery, and were not able to follow the food program, diet, after. One was so addicted to sugar-wheat-carbs, and the other looked like scurvy, also common after.

Food addiction is real, and must be overcome before any diet will work. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies are real and some cause real hunger; hence, drive eating. Hyperinsulinemia is another issue. These must be identified and corrected.

The ultimate test would be to follow the food program for a month or so before the surgery. If you can follow it, then make a decision.

Polish Roulette.

You all have heard of Russian Roulette. I figure there is Polish roulette as well, where you take a gun and point it at your foot. Once in a while it is going to hurt and do a little damage. That is the same as eating fake low carb or gluten free stuff. Most of the time it will be ok but once in a while it is gonna hurt. Oh well, that life. The only thing we can count on is death, weeds and taxes.

Sunday, May 22, 2011

links list

a list of links
http://www.carbohydrateaddicts.com/cadfnd.html   Carbohydrate Addiction Defined ( the Hellers)

http://lowcarbdiets.about.com Laura Dolson

and more on Vit C

Political involvement:
from http://nutritionr.com
So, they set up a MINIMUM DAILY ALLOWANCE (MDA) chart. It was (and is) designed to just be enough to prevent these three terrible deficiency diseases. It has been modified and added to along the way. Also, along the way, the food industry lobbied successfully to change that name to “Recommended Daily Allowance”.

    In conclusion, supplementation with 1000 mg/day
    of vitamin C in addition to the normal  diet and treatment
    schedule may help in improving plasma glucose and
    lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.  
    Could the method of action be reduction of hunger, and therefore less carbs....

Short time BG increases, long term reductions.... Vit C yum.

    Friday, May 20, 2011

    More Vitamin C notes

    It's not that vitamin C is the new weight loss wonder drug, but the discovery that consuming an inadequate amount of the vitamin can hinder weight loss.

    Does too little Vit C slow metabolism?

    According to researchers from Arizona State University, individuals consuming sufficient amounts of vitamin C oxidize (burn) 30% more fat during moderate exercise than those who consume insufficient amounts. In addition, too little vitamin C in the bloodstream has been shown to correlate with increased body fat and waist measurements.

    The US RDA (recommended daily allowance) of vitamin C for adults 19 years and older is 90 mg for males and 75 mg for females. Since our bodies can’t manufacture vitamin C, we must obtain it through our diet.

    Roughly 40% of men and 38% of women 19 and older don't get enough.

    from --  Strategies for Healthy Weight Loss: From Vitamin C to the Glycemic Response
    Carol S. Johnston

    Vitamin C status is inversely related to body mass. Individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise bout than individuals with low vitamin C status; thus, vitamin C depleted individuals may be more resistant to fat mass loss.

    Vitamin C status is associated with tissue carnitine concentrations and fat oxidation and may represent a modifiable condition that would impact fat oxidation thereby affecting body composition and body mass.

    From Wipi -- Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine.[1] In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into themitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is often sold as a nutritional supplement.

    Note: Vit C seems to reduce hunger and raise blood sugar or blood sugar measurement. Perhaps it is just sparing glucose, but the effect seems to be real. 

    to slow digestion:
    The glycemic response to food ingestion has been associated with subsequent hunger; complementary foods, such as vinegar or peanut products, when added to meals, may attenuate meal-time glycemia promoting satiety and reduced energy intake.

    Legumes, Lectins. Yum, slow digestion, why not include beans, the undigestible. Let the bacteria digest them, then digest the bacteria.

    Thursday, May 19, 2011

    Change of lifestyle

    A major change of lifestyle has been the major factor in my recovery from obesity. The major change has been to go to a Paleo style diet.  No trans-fats, sugar, grains, seed oils, or manufactured eatable products would go a long way in cleaning up this obesity epidemic. Other issues like food addiction, hyperinsulinemia, and no impulse control would then be obvious. Eat real food that would be recognized 100 years ago. Fruit, mainly in local season.

    Some Paleos also exclude all or most dairy, and legumes. Reference: Loren Cordain

    There is a second way in dealing with hyperinsulinemia, and that is to cut insulinogenic foods: sugars, grains, seed oils, manufactured eatable products, dairy, legumes, and fruits. When we remove the excess insulin, we can see the leptin, and gain the leptin effect. Also chew a Vitamin C tablet after meals, as it aids in satiety and satiation

    Wednesday, May 18, 2011

    Vitamin C

    FT: May 17, 2011, BG 4.6, 1000 UI Vit C, 1/2 hr later BG 5.9 and I was no longer hungry. Is it the BG that is changing or the measurement? Is this related to the change in energy levels that I feel? 1000 UI in the form of ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate Jamiseson chewable.

    Notes from wikipedia: Vitamin C, the regular intake the absorption rate varies between 70 to 95%. Ascorbate is accumulated in the body until the plasma levels reach the renal resorption threshold, which is about 1.5 mg/dL in men and 1.3 mg/dL in women.

    Storage: Biological tissues that accumulate over 100 times the level in blood plasma of vitamin C are the adrenal glands, pituitary, thymus, corpus luteum, and retina.[44] Those with 10 to 50 times the concentration present in blood plasma include the brain, spleen, lung,testicle, lymph nodes, liver, thyroid, small intestinal mucosa, leukocytes, pancreas, kidney and salivary glands.

    Diabetes Care says: High doses of supplementary vitamin C may cause an unexpected elevation of blood sugar levels.

    Indian J Med Res 126 2007 Nov : Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes related to hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress. This endothelial dysfunction may worsen insulin resistance. It may be possible that vitamin C as an antioxidant can probably reduce insulin resistance by improved endothelial function and lowering oxidative stress.

    In conclusion, supplementation with 1000 mg/day of vitamin C in addition to the normal diet and treatment schedule may help in improving plasma glucose and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Re: Dr. Berstein, Vitamin C and Blood Glucose.

    The electrical resistance of the test strips react with the vitamin c giving you false readings
    Dr. Berstein claims that Vitamin C in excess of 250mg can cause high blood sugar and low blood sugar test strips and hemoglobin Ac1 test.

    Dr. Jacob Teitelbaum Answered:
    Vitamin C is critical for the production of the hormone cortisol, which helps keep blood sugar stable during stress. Consequently, vitamin C decreases the symptoms of low blood sugar and associated sugar cravings.

    Vitamin C offers other benefits as well. Too little vitamin C in the bloodstream has been found to correlate with increased body fat and waist measurements. Research conducted at Arizona State University and published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition in 2005 showed that the amount of vitamin C in the bloodstream is directly related to fat oxidation, the body’s ability to use fat as a fuel source, both during exercise and at rest. Vitamin C can also boost immune function. Recommended daily dose: 300 to 1,000 mg.

    Wipi L-Ascorbate is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose that naturally occurs attached either to ahydrogen ion, forming ascorbic acid, or to a metal ion, forming a mineral ascorbate.

    Vitamin C status and fatigue in obese adults consuming a reduced-calorie diet Christy L Alexon1, Carol S Johnston1, Bonnie Beezhold1 and Pamela D Swan states:
    These data suggest that vitamin C status affects perceptions of fatigue both at rest and during sub-maximal exercise in obese adults consuming calorie-restricted diets. Hence, vitamin C status may impact success of weight loss regimens.
    or (same authors, possible same study)
    Nutrition researchers from Arizona State University report that the amount of vitamin C in the blood stream is directly related to fat oxidation, the body's ability to use fat as a fuel source, during both exercise and at rest.

    So there we have it, it effects either the testing or BG, but I feel better with the vit C, and am less hungry.

    Tuesday, May 17, 2011

    Nine properties of each food

    Each individual food has nine properties to know to rationally design a diet

    1. Carbohydrate / Protein / Fat which food group does it belong
    2. Caloric density calories/gram
    3. Fat type balance Omega 3 vs Omega 6, cut 6
    4. Nutritional Density, amount of non caloric nutrition, avoid nutritional displacement 
    5. Trace Mineralogy and vitamins, phylate concentration
    6. Ph induced 
    7. Na/K balance
    8. Fiber
    9. Satiation Density

    Monday, May 16, 2011

    Paleo Diet

    Loren Cordain Pensacola lecture

    Review of my past overeating.

    This AM http://weightmaven.org/2011/05/15/about-emotional-eating/ had a lovely description or summary of  issues with overeating.

    In my case, the OA program and the study of Buddhist literature has all but eliminated my emotional eating, but not the physiology. A study of food and nutrition has helped in knowing what I should be eating and how much, but I still have a issue with overeating when I am hungry, physically hungry in the gut. I have been able to recover from a life of obesity and obsession with food, to the point that I am now just overweight. I am still obsessed, have excessive hunger, poor impulse control, and other personality and behavior issues as well as a bad (leaky) memory. 

    There is much wrong information in the food/diet world.  It required much sorting real from bullshit, not just differing opinions. A bit of physiology, organic chemistry and science (engineering) goes a long way in identifying much of  the crap. 

    Transient hyperinsulinemia may be the undiagnosed cause of the excess hunger, but there is no treatment, other than "learn to live with it". Yet at the same time stable BG, usually in the 4.5 - 5.5 range, so hyperinsulinemia is not likely.

    Some of the diet advise makes the problem worse. The advise to always eat breakfasts, for example, is difficult to deal with as I am not hungry until I eat, and then the hunger comes. LCHF helps BG control but not the hunger.

    Saturday, May 14, 2011

    By The Numbers

    In order to understand weight loss by the numbers in detail, there are papers by K Hall and C Chow (http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/NIDDKLabs/IntramuralFaculty/HallKevin.htm) that are detailed calculation methods; however, suffer from a common problem of simplifying assumptions and variable evaluation. I have tried to estimate a few of the variable values on myself, and found some interesting results, on the extreme ranges of there values. My CD,caloric density, (C/gm) for fat appears to be about 7, and for carbohydrates 5.0. How about that, one low, one high.

    Other numbers that show up, BMR (base metabolism rate) is approximately 22 C/kg/Day of lean body mass. With a BMI (body mass index) (w/hxh) of 18 or 20, we can estimate a lean body mass. In my case, use 20, height of 1.78m, LBM=63.4, BMR= 1394 C/Day.

    Total energy required is equal to BMR + exercise energy(EE). No wonder I cannot control my weight, I am eating to damn much. The computer programs lie, saying I should be eating 1800 to 2400 per day. More wrong information to overcome.

    There is no room in the calories budget for indulgences like sugar, grains, oils, manufactured eatable products, wine and chocolate.

    The total energy in is the sum of grams of CxCD+ FxCD+ PxCD and that must be less than BMR+EE. Since EE is variable, and generally small in my case, if I were to eat BMR only, my weight should come down on a long slow curve. Now how can I eat so few calories and not be hungry?

    Note that satiety is just post meal, not duration between meals. It is the space between meals that fat provides that allow us to use calories up. Note that when the C/t, calories divided by time, to the next meal is less that your BMR, base metabolism rate, we are loosing weight. That is a test before lunch and before supper. (meals of this size cannot be called dinner) Satiety is at the end of the meal, our ability to push away from the table. Early nights, early rises may also help.

    Friday, May 13, 2011

    Addiction vs Hyperinsulinemia

    Note that Carbohydrate Addiction and transient postprandial reactive Hyperinsulinemia are different critters, but are both set off by carbohydrate load and dense carbohydrates with a high caloric density.

    Carbohydrate addiction is a endorphin opioid reward hedonic response low impulse issue. 

    Transient postprandial reactive hyperinsulinemia is a after some meals reaction of excess insulin.

    Both produce cravings or a hunger for carbohydrates. In the case of hyperinsulinemia, mild exercise will reduce the hunger through GLUT4 transporter.

    Wednesday, May 11, 2011


    Habit has much to do with eating frequency. We eat when we can, and food is present. Try working all your waking hours in a place where eating is not advisable, and break the habit. Portions can also be habit.
    http://www.gnolls.org/2074/why-snack-food-is-addictive-the-grand-unified-theory-of-snack-appeal/ and http://valerieberkowitz.wordpress.com/2011/05/10/can-i-have-seconds/ are examples of habit creating issues.

    Diet Advice

    There is much evidence that we “easy to fatten” have been marks to the food industry for a long time. They do not have public health uppermost in there minds. The food industry is corrupt, with corrupt marketing, and much is owned by old tobacco money. How do we know what information to trust?

    Overcoming addiction is tough. Tobacco was the easiest of the three that I overcame. Sugar was next, and next easiest. Wheat was tough, I craved for about a severely for about year. Withdrawal included bad headaches, different from low glycogen headaches. Both wheat and sugar creep into my food occasionally, and result is intense cravings. Both are everywhere. With sugar and wheat generally gone, I dropped 55+ kgs. Manufactured oils, or Omega 6 oils also appear to be addicting, or hyperpalatable, but it is difficult to cut to 2 gm/day as it is everywhere.

    Simplifying weight loss diet advice would help. No trans-fats, sugar, grains, seed oils, or manufactured eatable products would go a long way in cleaning up this obesity epidemic. Other issues like food addiction, hyperinsulinemia, and no impulse control would then be obvious. Eat real food that would be recognized 100 years ago.

    Also, never take diet advise from a men or fat women unless you test it on yourself and determine it to be right. It is what is right, no who is right. Sounds a little Buddhist, I think.

    This site has an bit better outline http://thatpaleoguy.blogspot.com/2011/05/quick-observation.html

    Tuesday, May 10, 2011

    The Order of Occurrence

    Suppose the order of occurrence is as follows:
    subclinical low blood sugar
    insulin production
    insulin overproduction

    the result will be obesity

    The solution then is eat in such a manner to not produce insulin, ie eat high fat, low carbs, little protein.


    Note: more wrong information; No separation between hyperinsulinemia and addiction, and gluten, these are separate items. I just happen to have all 3, and many others can have all 3 also, but not necessarly.

    from http://weight.insulitelabs.com/Addiction.php

    As many as 75% of overweight and obese people may be addicted through poor eating habits to either carbohydrates or the protein called gluten, which is found in all wheat, rye, barley and oat products.

    Like any addiction, these cravings are unhealthy and problematic. They take the form of either an irresistible craving for carbohydrate-rich foods such as desserts, candies and junk food, or gluten products like breakfast cereals, breads and pasta.

    Carbohydrate-rich foods make up a large part of the modern-day diet and include bagels, cakes, chocolate, cookies, crackers, pastry, fruit and fruit juice, ice cream, potato chips, potatoes, pretzels, rice, pie, popcorn and sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, carbohydrate "act-a-likes" such as sugar substitutes, alcoholic beverages and monosodium glutamate may trigger intense, recurring carbohydrate cravings, which can lead to excess weight and obesity.

    Proteins such as gluten result in the production of substances that can have addictive, narcotic-like effects. These substances are called "exorphins." Hydrolyzed wheat gluten, for example, has been found to prolong intestinal transit time and may contribute to weight gain. The effects of exorphins on the brain tell a person to keep eating gluten products, which, in turn, could contribute to the mental disturbances and appetite disorders that routinely accompany food-related illnesses.

    Many food "addicts" are right to suspect there is a physical reason that makes them crave carbohydrates and put weight on easily. But the underlying cause of their struggles often goes undiagnosed and untreated by the medical profession.

    Carbohydrate Addiction

    Carbohydrate addiction is, in fact, caused by excess insulin, which is released by the pancreas into the blood stream when carb-rich foods are eaten. Insulin signals the body to take in food and, once the food is consumed, orders the resulting energy to be stored in the form of fat. Too much insulin results in an irresistible and frequent desire to eat.

    The scientific term for this condition is post-prandial reactive hyperinsulinemia, which means too much insulin is released after eating. Hyperinsulinemia stems from Insulin Resistance, an imbalance of blood glucose and insulin levels. If left unchecked, Insulin Resistance can result in excess weight and obesity, increasing the risk of developing a variety of damaging disorders such as:
    The cluster of cardiovascular risk factors called metabolic syndrome (syndrome X), which can lead to a heart attack or stroke
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a leading cause of female infertility as well as numerous other symptoms including skin conditions, excess body and facial hair and male pattern baldness in women
    Reversible pre-diabetes, which, if left untreated, can lead to type 2 diabetes, which is irreversible in the vast majority of cases. Type 2 diabetes may require daily injections of insulin and significantly increases the risk for blindness, heart and kidney disease and the need for amputationGluten Intolerance

    Gluten intolerance can manifest in many ways. You may have heard of Celiac Disease, an extreme reaction to any product containing gluten, a protein found in wheat. The symptoms are chronic watery and bloody stools. The immune systems of those with Celiac Disease are reacting severely to this protein, however there are thousands of people who suffer milder reactions to gluten and are unaware of the underlying cause.

    Eating gluten can cause inflammation in the sensitive mucous membranes of the intestinal lining which can trigger an immune response. Because of this immune reaction, individuals experience wide variations in symptoms such as rashes, fatigue, mental fog, behavioral disorders like hyperactivity in children, gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation or diarrhea, chronic headaches and more.

    Many individuals have increased food cravings as a reaction to consuming gluten, but are unaware of the reason for their desire to eat continuously or even out of control. Some medical practitioners are challenged to pinpoint this condition and, as a result, their patients are often left to treat the symptoms rather than the cause - ingesting glutens. Due to the lack of specificity in identifying their disorder, many people continue to eat gluten for decades and struggle constantly with their food cravings.

    Insulin Resistance

    Insulin increases the insulin sensitivity of your cells, which, in turn, impedes the vital process whereby food converted into glucose in the bloodstream passes through the cell wall to be converted to energy. Glucose "bounces" off the cell walls after being denied entry and "free floats" to the liver, where the sugar is stored in fat cells throughout the body via the blood stream.

    Common symptoms of resulting energy starvation include irritability, shakiness, tiredness, intense cravings, confusion and headaches. As high insulin levels continue, glucose gets trapped in the blood stream and can bring on pre- and type 2 diabetes.

    Pre-diabetics, who have blood sugar levels higher than normal but not yet in the range of type 2 diabetes, can reverse their condition with a balanced, nutritious diet and regular exercise. Type 2 diabetes can develop if you neglect the symptoms of pre-diabetes.

    There is currently no accepted blood test to determine definitively whether you are carb-addicted. Fasting insulin levels do not necessarily predict how your body will react after eating carbohydrate-rich foods and glucose tolerance tests use highly sweetened drinks that are not the equivalent of typical carbohydrate-rich meals.

    But if you are overweight or obese, there is a good chance you are carbohydrate or gluten-addicted. However, it's not necessarily true that you over-eat, just that you are trapped in the bad habit of eating the wrong diet i.e. carb or gluten- rich food, while leading a sedentary lifestyle.

    Changing those habits is a key factor in the Insulite System's approach to improved health through weight loss via a balanced nutritious diet, regular exercise and ongoing support.

    A crucial aim is to address the impact that food makes on neuro-transmitters in the brain. By changing your lifestyle and "re-training" the way your brain perceives food, you can reverse Insulin Resistance and achieve lasting weight loss and a greater sense of well-being in ways that may not have occurred to you.

    Monday, May 9, 2011


    Overeating has a long list of causes: sugar addiction, wheat addiction, chocolate addiction, Omega 6 oil addiction, Dense Carbohydrate addiction, protein addiction, nut addiction and combinations...

    Then we have  conditions that contribute: Emotional eating, hyperinsulinema, leptin resistance, insulin resistance, habitual issues, environmental pressures, stress, lack of food knowledge, wrong food information...

    If you to keep on eating your binge foods,  additional foods or foods that set off your condition, you can expect failure. We often have the double whammy.. addictions and a physical condition that encourages overeating.

    God is just a concepts, the 12 steps become a frame work for cleaning up your life after you stop eating your addition foods and stop setting off your conditions. We often have multipliable issues.  Addressing only one without the other is a failure just weighting to happen.

    emotional eating

    Is ‘emotional eating’ always due to emotions?

    Some individuals have themselves down as ‘emotional eaters’. The idea here is that they sometimes feel driven to eat foods as a result of their emotional state. Usually, this is in response to ‘negative’ states such as stress, anxiety or sadness. In a moment, I’m going to suggest two approaches that, in my experience, can be highly effective for dissolving emotional eating effectively and quickly. Before that though, I wanted to explore for a moment whether emotional eating is always as emotional as we think it is…
    Imagine someone suffers from a tendency to unstable blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels drop, biochemical and physiological changes occur in the body including the secretion of ‘stress’ hormones like adrenaline. The brain will also tend to increase its production of a substance called glutamate which has the capacity to increase anxiety.
    Allied to any change in mood, low blood sugar levels can also provoke a craving for foods that replenish sugar quickly into the bloodstream such as chocolate, biscuits or bread. But here’s the question: what caused the food cravings – the person’s emotions, or the fact that they dropped their blood sugar level in the first place?
    In my experience, many individuals who believe they have an ‘emotional eating’ problem appear to have nothing of the sort. How do I know this? Because, I’ve seen time and again that when an ‘emotional’ eater eats properly, and in particular stabilise their blood sugar level, their ‘emotional ‘eating’ just disappears. In many individuals, what appears to be a psychological issue is, in reality, physiological in nature.
    This is not to say that emotional eating cannot happen – it most certainly can. For example, after repeated offering of sweet foods as a treat or pacifier in childhood it is undoubtedly possible for individuals to associate such foods with certain emotions. If that is genuinely the case for you, then taking a more mind-oriented approach may indeed help.
    To understand how best to approach this sort of issue, it helps to understand a bit more about the mind. The brain can be thought of as having two major components: the conscious mind and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind is what, among other things, allows you to think about things and rationalise and work things out. While you’ve been reading this book, it’s likely that your conscious mind will have been quite active.
    The unconscious mind, as its name suggests, controls unconscious thoughts and behaviours. Many emotional responses are seated here. An example is my spider phobia. I am afraid of spiders, even though I know that here in the UK they can’t hurt me in any meaningful way. In my unconscious mind I have associated spiders with some form of threat. And no amount of talking it through with a therapist or attempting to rationalise this in my own mind is unlikely to make much difference. Basically, taking a conscious approach to a problem that is unconscious is nature is of questionable value. It’s a bit like attempting to work on a problem with the engine of a car without first flipping the bonnet.
    What this means is that for a genuine emotional eating issue we need to ‘flip the bonnet’ and get access to the unconscious mind. In my experience, two approaches that have considerable merit here are hypnotherapy and ‘emotional freedom technique’ (EFT). The latter can be learned and self-applied relatively easily, and plenty of resources regarding it are available on-line.


    More evidence showed up that we “easy to fatten” have been marks to the food industry for a long time. They do not have public health uppermost in there minds. The food industry is corrupt, with corrupt marketing, and much is owned by old tobacco money. How do we know what information to trust?
    Overcoming addiction is tough. Tobacco was the easiest of the three that I overcame. Sugar was next, and next easiest. Wheat was tough, I craved for about a severely for about year. Withdrawal included bad headaches, different from low glycogen headaches. Both wheat and sugar creep into my food occasionally, and result is intense cravings. Both are everywhere. With sugar and wheat generally gone, I dropped 55+ kgs. Manufactured oils, or Omega 6 oils also appear to be addicting, or hyperpalatable, but it is difficult to cut to 2 gm/day as it is everywhere.
    For the record but I did not save the source 
    It is proposed that chronic hyperinsulinemia is largely responsible for hunger, cravings and weight gain observed in many obese. This form of obesity can be treated by decreasing frequency of daily intake of carbohydrates to one well-balance meal each day and allowing for additional meals that are low in fat (I am assuming low in added fat), low carbohydrates and high fiber. Animal experimentation and epidemiological evidence support the role of chronic hyperinsulinemia as a major factor in obesity and accounts for the frequent failures of diet and behavioral modification programs. Chronic hyperinsulinemia upsets metabolic balances and favors anabolic metabolism; fosters carbohydrate cravings; promotes insulin resistance which further promotes anabolic metabolism; and insulin resistance in turn exacerbates chronic hyperinsulinemia. This vicious cycle maintains excess weight and defeats diet and behavioral modification attempts to treat obesity. An eating program focused on reduction of chronic hyperinsulinemia coupled with appropriate exercise and behavior modification can successfully and permanently bring down cravings, hunger and body weight. ( but he has not done it)

    Lustig, leptin

    Dr. R, Lustig said 

    Childhood obesity has become epidemic over the past 30 years. The First Law of Thermodynamics is routinely interpreted to imply that weight gain is secondary to increased caloric intake and/or decreased energy expenditure, two behaviors that have been documented during this interval; nonetheless, lifestyle interventions are notoriously ineffective at promoting weight loss.

    Obesity is characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Although hyperinsulinemia is usually thought to be secondary to obesity, it can instead be primary, due to autonomic dysfunction. Obesity is also a state of leptin resistance, in which defective leptin signal transduction promotes excess energy intake, to maintain normal energy expenditure. Insulin and leptin share a common central signaling pathway, and it seems that insulin functions as an endogenous leptin antagonist.

    Suppressing insulin ameliorates leptin resistance, with ensuing reduction of caloric intake, increased spontaneous activity, and improved quality of life. Hyperinsulinemia also interferes with dopamine clearance in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens, promoting increased food reward.

    Accordingly, the First Law of Thermodynamics can be reinterpreted, such that the behaviors of increased caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure are secondary to obligate weight gain. This weight gain is driven by the hyperinsulinemic state, through three mechanisms: energy partitioning into adipose tissue; interference with leptin signal transduction; and interference with extinction of the hedonic response to

    The Rosedale diet by Dr. Ron Rosedale explores dietary solutions for correcting leptin imbalances.
    The Fat Resistant Diet by Leo Galland is anti-inflammatory diet that also addresses leptin.
    Mastering Leptin by Byron Richards (2004) also addresses leptin imbalances.

    Also, elsewhere, it is suggested that Vitamin C is a precursor for leptin, and a 500 UI dose of sodium ascorbate after each meal will fix you up. It is also suggested that sodium ascorbate is a precursor to cortisol and will effect your blood glucose measurements. It is not clear if it effects the blood glucose or just the measurement. Other forms of Vit C have reduced  effect...OK. 


    Sunday, May 8, 2011

    appetite Stimulus

    For the record from http://www.trackyourplaque.com/blog/2011/04/have-some-more.html

    Have some more

    by DR. WILLIAM DAVIS on APRIL 7, 2011 · 36 COMMENTS
    in WHEAT
    Wheat, via exorphin effects, is an appetite stimulant. Eat a whole wheat bagel or bran muffin, you want another. You also want more of other foods. You also want something to eat every two hours due to widely-swinging insulin-glucose responses: blood sugar high followed by a sharp downturn that triggers a powerful impulse to eat (thus the cravings for a snack at 9 and 11 a.m. after a 7 a.m. breakfast).
    If wheat is a stimulant of appetite, then removing it should yield reduced appetite and reduced calorie intake. That is precisely what happens.
    When wheat products are removed from the diet–without calorie restriction, withoutcounting fat or carbohydrate grams, no exercise program, no cleansing regimen, no skipping meals . . . nothing–calorie intake drops 350 to 400 calories per day. This calorie figure remains curiously consistent across multiple studies in which wheat was eliminated.
    400 calories per day results in 21 lbs lost over 6 months, based just on calories. (3500 calories per pound lost.) That is what happens in wheat elimination diets: 21-26 lbs lost over 6 months.
    Wheat is the processed food industry’s nicotine, a means of ensuring repeat food purchases. It’s also low-cost (subsidized by the U.S. government), high-yield, an ingredient that even has its very own withdrawal syndrome should you miss a “hit.”

    appetite Stimulus

    for the record from http://weightmaven.org/

    Western diet = inflammation + munchies

    hunger and satiety

    from http://zeroinginonhealth.com/Hunger.html

    Hunger and Satiety
    Many people observe that when they eat foods high in protein and fat, they have a hard time binging. However, with carbohydrates, we don’t seem to have that protection. Many of us can imagine eating an entire container of movie popcorn with the butter, or finishing off a dozen donuts or even an entire pizza. Researchers have studied the metabolic background of hunger and they made two important universal observations:
    First, it’s possible to still be hungry on 10,000 calories of carbohydrates; and,
    Second, that obese people tend to prefer carbohydrates more than lean individuals.
    University of Vermont researcher Ethan Sims conducted overfeeding experiments on convicts. He found that a person can eat as much as 10,000 calories per day of mostly carbohydrates and still feel hunger late in the day. Subjects fed 800 superfluous calories of fat developed marked anorexia. Sims and his colleagues neglected to publish the fact that it seemed impossible to fatten their subjects on high-fat, high-protein diets. Edward Horton, who was a colleague of Sims at the time, related that volunteers would sit staring at “plates of pork chops a mile high and they would refuse to eat enough of this meat to constitute the excess thousand calories a day that the Vermont investigators were asking of them. Elliot Danforth worked along with Sims and stated, “The bottom line is that you cannot gain weight on the Atkins diet. It’s just too hard. I challenge anyone to do an overfeeding study with just meat. You can’t do it. I think it’s a physical impossibility.”
    On a more familiar level, one can imagine eating a large 20-ounce bag of movie popcorn (over 1100 calories) but not 1100 calories of cheese or even a cup and a half of melted Brie.
    Both the anticipation of carbohydrates and the actual eating of them cause our bodies to secrete the hormone insulin which serves to deposit both fatty acids and glucose in fat tissue and it keeps those calories trapped in fat tissue once they get there. As long as we respond to carbohydrates by secreting more insulin, we continue to move nutrients from our bloodstream in expectation of the arrival of more, so we remain hungry or at least not fulfilled.
    It’s not that fat fills us up; rather, carbohydrates prevent satiety. For the obese, these are profound implications. Whenever insulin is in circulation, fatty acids are not. Obesity results when fatty acids remain stored longer than they should. Fatty acids move constantly throughout our bodies in the bloodstream. They never sit idle as if they were in a trash can. This has been known since 1948. They move in the bloodstream constantly changing directions responding to the requests for fuel from the organs, muscles and tissues. However, when lipids get trapped in fat tissue, this causes fatty acids to stay in fat tissue for longer than normal and this results in a slowdown. This metabolic slowdown results in weight gain over time.
    We notice the effect of hyperinsulinemia at restaurants after eating a large steak. We are particularly stuffed yet when the wait staff comes and offers a delectable treat, we seem to find room even though we know we’re stuffed. If the wait staff were to offer us more steak, we would likely refuse. The anticipation of the sweet causes insulin to be released, which lowers our blood sugar, and creates the very real need to balance the blood sugar with more sugar. This is the vicious cycle of hyperinsulinemia and this is present even in lean people.
    The second observation is that obese people crave carbohydrates in two ways. In the first case, we have insulin secretion during a meal. In the second, we have the usual insulin responses in anticipation of and as a result of the meal. In both cases, insulin induces hunger or prevents satiety. In the case of hyperinsulinemia, this happens even between meals and/or during the night when the cells should be living off a fuel mixture predominantly of fatty acids. Instead, the high insulin traps the fatty acids in fat tissue and primes the cells to take up glucose in place of oxygen. As far as the body is concerned, this elevated insulin indicates that we’ve just eaten. However, in this case, we haven’t.
    Our homeostatic system is expecting to deal with glucose but there is none coming in the diet. Despite this there is still too much insulin in the circulation. The liver will not give up its glycogen due to high insulin in circulation and our blood sugar drops causing us to crave glucose. Even if we eat fat and protein, the hyperinsulinemia will serve to store those nutrients rather than allow them to be used for fuel. The implication is critical to how we perceive the dietary treatment of obesity and one in which even the current low-carbohydrate diet plans do not address.
    The craving for carbohydrates is a physiological one heralded by high insulin. Any diet that fails to control both cravings and hunger is sure to fail. The craving for carbohydrates is more closely akin to an addiction as British clinician Robert Kemp described it in 1963. Carbohydrates cause Hyperinsulinemia through the diet creating an addiction similar to nicotine or cocaine or any other addictive substance. There is nothing inherently natural about these addictions. Te hunger that goes along with semi-starvation is an unavoidable condition. The craving for carbohydrates is not.
    Sugar provides an exaggerated response to the region of the brain known as the reward center, the nucleus accumbens. Intense cravings for sugar may be explained by the intensity of the dopamine secretion in the brain when sugar is consumed. When the nucleas accubens is excessively activated by sweets or powerful drugs, it leads to abuse or addiction. When the system is underactive, it results in signs of depression. The fact that this is an addiction indicates that it can be overcome with sufficient time, effort, and motivation and this is not the case with hunger itself (except in the case of the anorexic).
    Avoiding carbohydrates will lower insulin over time and so ameliorate the hyperinsulinemia that causes the carbohydrate craving itself. Dr. James Sidbury found that after a year to 18 months the appetite is normalized and the craving for sweets is lost. Carbohydrate restriction is very difficult but with sufficient time and motivation, a person can indeed overcome their addiction to the sweet and thus improve their health.
    To overcome this addiction to carbohydrates, will require support. There isonline support available at the Forum where you can come and learn what it's like for someone with a zero-carb lifestyle.

    food reward 1

    For the record from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/04/food-reward-dominant-factor-in-obesity.html

    Food Reward: a Dominant Factor in Obesity, Part I

    A Curious Finding

    It all started with one little sentence buried in a paper about obese rats. I was reading about how rats become obese when they're given chocolate Ensure, the "meal replacement drink", when I came across this:
    ...neither [obesity-prone] nor [obesity-resistant] rats will overeat on either vanilla- or strawberry-flavored Ensure.
    The only meaningful difference between chocolate, vanilla and strawberry Ensure is the flavor, yet rats eating the chocolate variety overate, rapidly gained fat and became metabolically ill, while rats eating the other flavors didn't (1). Furthermore, the study suggested that the food's flavor determined, in part, what amount of fatness the rats' bodies "defended."

    As I explained in previous posts, the human (and rodent) brain regulates the amount of fat the body carries, in a manner similar to how the brain regulates blood pressure, body temperature, blood oxygenation and blood pH (2). That fact, in addition to several other lines of evidence, suggests that obesity probably results from a change in this regulatory system. I refer to the amount of body fat that the brain defends as the "body fat setpoint", however it's clear that the setpoint is dependent on diet and lifestyle factors. The implication of this paper that I could not escape is that a food's flavor influences body fatness and probably the body fat setpoint.

    An Introduction to Food Reward

    The brain contains a sophisticated system that assigns a value judgment to everything we experience, integrating a vast amount of information into a one-dimensional rating system that labels things from awesome to terrible. This is the system that decides whether we should seek out a particular experience, or avoid it. For example, if you burn yourself each time you touch the burner on your stove, your brain will label that action as bad and it will discourage you from touching it again. On the other hand, if you feel good every time you're cold and put on a sweater, your brain will encourage that behavior. In the psychology literature, this phenomenon is called "reward," and it's critical to survival.

    The brain assigns reward to, and seeks out, experiences that it perceives as positive, and discourages behaviors that it views as threatening. Drugs of abuse plug directly into reward pathways, bypassing the external routes that would typically trigger reward. Although this system has been studied most in the context of drug addiction, it evolved to deal with natural environmental stimuli, not drugs.

    As food is one of the most important elements of survival, the brain's reward system is highly attuned to food's rewarding properties. The brain uses input from smell, taste, touch, social cues, and numerous signals from the digestive tract* to assign a reward value to foods. Experiments in rats and humans have outlined some of the qualities of food that are inherently rewarding:
    • Fat
    • Starch
    • Sugar
    • Salt
    • Meatiness (glutamate)
    • The absence of bitterness
    • Certain textures (e.g., soft or liquid calories, crunchy foods)
    • Certain aromas (e.g., esters found in many fruits)
    • Calorie density ("heavy" food)
    We are generally born liking the qualities listed above, and aromas and flavors that are associated with these qualities become rewarding over time. For example, beer tastes terrible the first time you drink it because it's bitter, but after you drink it a few times and your brain catches wind that there are calories and a drug in there, it often begins tasting good. The same applies to many vegetables. Children are generally not fond of vegetables, but if you serve them spinach smothered in butter enough times, they'll learn to like it by the time they're adults.

    The human brain evolved to deal with a certain range of rewarding experiences. It didn't evolve to constructively manage strong drugs of abuse such as heroin and crack cocaine, which overstimulate reward pathways, leading to the pathological drug seeking behaviors that characterize addiction. These drugs are "superstimuli" that exceed our reward system's normal operating parameters. Over the next few posts, I'll try to convince you that in a similar manner, industrially processed food, which has been professionally crafted to maximize its rewarding properties, is a superstimulus that exceeds the brain's normal operating parameters, leading to an increase in body fatness and other negative consequences.

    * Nerves measure stomach distension. A number of of gut-derived paracrine and endocrine signals, including CCK, PYY, ghrelin, GLP-1 and many others potentially participate in food reward sensing, some by acting directly on the brain via the circulation, and others by signaling indirectly via the vagus nerve. More on this later.

    Food Reward

    For the record from http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/

    Food Reward: a Dominant Factor in Obesity, Part II

    How to Make a Rat Obese

    Rodents are an important model organism for the study of human obesity. To study obesity in rodents, you have to make them fat first. There are many ways to do this, from genetic mutations, to brain lesions, to various diets. However, the most rapid and effective way to make a normal (non-mutant, non-lesioned) rodent obese is the "cafeteria diet." The cafeteria diet first appeared in the medical literature in 1979 (1), and was quickly adopted by other investigators. Here's a description from a recent paper (2):

    In this model, animals are allowed free access to standard chow and water while concurrently offered highly palatable, energy dense, unhealthy human foods ad libitum.
    In other words, they're given an unlimited amount of human junk food in addition to their whole food-based "standard chow." In this particular paper, the junk foods included Froot Loops, Cocoa Puffs, peanut butter cookies, Reese's Pieces, Hostess Blueberry MiniMuffins, Cheez-its, nacho cheese Doritos, hot dogs, cheese, wedding cake, pork rinds, pepperoni slices and other industrial delicacies. Rats exposed to this food almost completely ignored their healthier, more nutritious and less palatable chow, instead gorging on junk food and rapidly attaining an obese state.

    Investigators have known for decades that the cafeteria diet is a highly effective way of producing obesity in rodents, but what was interesting about this particular study from my perspective is that it compared the cafeteria diet to three other commonly used rodent diets: 1) standard, unpurified chow; 2) a purified/refined high-fat diet; 3) a purified/refined low-fat diet designed as a comparator for the high-fat diet. All three of these diets were given as homogeneous pellets, and the textures range from hard and fibrous (chow) to soft and oily like cookie dough (high-fat). The low-fat diet contains a lot of sugar, the high-fat diet contains a modest amount of sugar, and the chow diet contains virtually none. The particular high-fat diet in this paper (Research Diets D12451, 45% fat, which is high for a rat) is commonly used to produce obesity in rats, although it's not always very effective. The 60% fat version is more effective.

    Consistent with previous findings, rats on every diet consumed the same number of calories over time... except the cafeteria diet-fed rats, which ate 30% more than any of the other groups. Rats on every diet gained fat compared to the unpurified chow group, but the cafeteria diet group gained much more than any of the others. There was no difference in fat gain between the purified high-fat and low-fat diets.

    So in this paper, they compared two refined diets with vastly different carb:fat ratios and different sugar contents, and yet neither equaled the cafeteria diet in its ability to increase food intake and cause fat gain. The fat, starch and sugar content of the cafeteria diet was not able to fully explain its effect on fat gain. However, each diets' ability to cause fat gain correlated with its respective food reward qualities. Refined diets high in fat or sugar caused fat gain in rats relative to unpurified chow, but were surpassed by a diet containing a combination of fat, sugar, starch, salt, free glutamate (umami), interesting textures and pleasant and invariant aromas.

    Although the cafeteria diet is the most effective at causing obesity in rodents, it's not commonly used because it's a lot more work than feeding pellets, and it introduces a lot of variability into experiments because each rat eats a different combination of foods.
    How to Make an Obese H
    uman Lean

    In 1965, the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published a very unusual paper (3). Here is the stated goal of the investigators:
    The study of food intake in man is fraught with difficulties which result from the enormously complex nature of human eating behavior. In man, in contrast to lower animals, the eating process involves an intricate mixture of physiologic, psychologic, cultural and esthetic considerations. People eat not only to assuage hunger, but because of the enjoyment of the meal ceremony, the pleasures of the palate and often to gratify unconscious needs that are hard to identify. Because of inherent difficulties in studying human food intake in the usual setting, we have attempted to develop a system that would minimize the variables involved and thereby improve the chances of obtaining more reliable and reproducible data.
    Here's a photo of their "system":
    It's a machine that dispenses bland liquid food through a straw, at the push of a button. They don't give any information on the composition of the liquid diet, beyond remarking that "carbohydrate supplied 50 per cent of the calories, protein 20 per cent and fat 30 per cent. the formula contained vitamins and minerals in amount adequate for daily maintenance."

    Volunteers were given access to the machine and allowed to consume as much of the liquid diet as they wanted, but no other food. Since they were in a hospital setting, the investigators could be confident that the volunteers ate nothing else.

    The first thing they report is what happened when they fed two lean people using the machine, for 16 or 9 days. Both of them maintained their typical calorie intake (~3,075 and ~4,430 kcal per day) and maintained a very stable weight during this period.
    Next, the investigators did the same experiment using two "grossly obese" volunteers. Again, they were asked to "obtain food from the machine whenever hungry." Over the course of the first 18 days, the first (male) volunteer consumed a meager 275 calories per day. The second (female) volunteer consumed a ridiculously low 144 calories per day over the course of 12 days, losing 23 pounds. Without showing data, the investigators remarked that an additional three obese volunteers "showed a similar inhibition of calorie intake when fed by machine."
    The first volunteer continued eating bland food from the machine for a total of 70 days, losing approximately 70 pounds. After that, he was sent home with the formula and instructed to drink 400 calories of it per day, which he did for an additional 185 days, after which his total weight loss was 200 lbs. The investigators remarked that "during all this time weight was steadily lost and the patient never complained of hunger or gastrointestinal discomfort." This is truly a starvation-level calorie intake, and to eat it continually for 255 days without hunger suggests that something rather interesting was happening in this man's body.

    This machine-feeding regimen was nearly as close as one can get to a diet with no rewarding properties whatsoever. Although it contained carbohydrate and fat, it did not contain any flavor or texture to associate them with, and thus the reward value of the diet was minimized. As one would expect if food reward influences the body fat setpoint, lean volunteers maintained starting weight and a normal calorie intake, while their obese counterparts rapidly lost a massive amount of fat and reduced calorie intake dramatically without hunger. This suggests that obesity is not entirely due to a "broken" metabolism (although that may still contribute), but also at least in part to a heightened sensitivity to food reward in susceptible people. This also implies that obesity may not be a disorder, but rather a normal response to the prevailing dietary environment in affluent nations.

    A second study by Dr. Michel Cabanac in 1976 confirmed that reducing food reward (by feeding bland food) lowers the fat mass setpoint in humans, using a clever method that I won't discuss for the sake of brevity (4). I learned about both of these studies through the writing of Dr. Seth Roberts, author of The Shangri-La Diet. I'd also like to thank Dr. Stephen Benoit, a researcher in the food reward field, for talking through these ideas with me to make sure I wasn't misinterpreting them.
    I'd like to briefly remark that there's an anatomical basis for the idea of two-way communication between brain regions that determine reward and those that control body fatness. It's well known that the latter influence the former (think about your drive to obtain food after you've just eaten a big meal vs. after you've skipped a meal), but there are also connections from the former to the latter via a brain region called the lateral hypothalamus. The point is that it's anatomically plausible that food reward determines in part the amount of body fat a person carries.

    Some people may be inclined to think "well, if food tastes bad, you eat less of it; so what!" Although that may be true to some extent, I don't think it can explain the fact that bland diets affect the calorie intake of lean and obese people differently. To me, that implies that highly rewarding food increases the body fat setpoint in susceptible people, and that food with few rewarding properties allows them to return to a lean state.
    In the next few posts, I'll describe how food reward explains the effectiveness of many popular fat loss diets, I'll describe how this hypothesis fits in with the diets and health of non-industrial cultures, and I'll outline new dietary strategies for preventing and treating obesity and certain forms of metabolic dysfunction.

    Part 3 http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2011/05/food-reward-dominant-factor-in-obesity_18.html